Human Evolution Database

This is the beginning of a database showing the supposed "links" in the human evolution chain. Upon examining the actual evidence it is clear that some fossils are apes and some are humans but none are evolutionary links.

Species: Sahelanthropus Tchadensis Location: Anthrocotheriid Unit Toros-Menalla, Chad Discovery Date: 19-Jul-2001
Discovered By: Djimdoumalbaye Ahounta Estimated Age: 6 mya - 7 mya Fossil Name: TM266-01-060-1
Notes: Relatively flat face, small canines, thick enamel (all derived hominid traits) Earliest known hominid as of 7/02 Adult cranium with novel combination of primitive and derived traits. Suggested to be bipedal (based on position of foramen magnum). Perhaps not a direct human ancestor; Chimp ancestor? Gorilla ancestor?
Species: Australopithecus africanus Location: Buxton Limeworks Taung, South Africa Discovery Date: 7-Apr-1905
Discovered By: M. de Bruyn Estimated Age: 2.3 mya Fossil Name: Taung Child
Notes: First early hominid fossil found in Africa juvenile (3 years old based on deciduous teeth, first permanent molars) Bipedal hominid (based on position of foramen magnum, brain endocast, small canines) Killed possibly by bird of prey (based on fractures and puncture marks on skull)
  Species: Australopithecus sp. Location: Sterkfontein Cave South Africa Discovery Date: 19-Jun-1905
Discovered By: R.J. Clarke Estimated Age: 3.3 mya Fossil Name: StW573 (Little foot)
Notes: Almost complete skull and skeleton (still being excavated) Adult (based on molar eruption) Small sagittal crest Foot bones suggest tree dwelling ability.
Species: Australopithecus africanus Location: Sterkfontein Cave South Africa Discovery Date: 30-Apr-1905
Discovered By: R. Broom and J. Robinson Estimated Age: 2.5 mya Fossil Name: Sts 5 (Mrs. Ples)
Notes: No tools found in same layer Erect posture (based on forward facing foramen magnum)
  Species: Homo sapiens Location: Skhul Cave Mount Carmel, Israel Discovery Date: 2-May-1932
Discovered By: Theodore McCown and Hallum Movius Jr. Estimated Age: 90,000 ya Fossil Name: Skhul V
Notes: 10,000 Mousterian tools found in same layer Found with 9 other individuals (intentionally buried) Adult (30-40 years old based on cranial suture and dental wear Presence in Near East before Neanderthals evidence that modern humans did not evolve directly from them
Species: Paranthropus robustus / Australopithecus robustus Location: Swartkrans South Africa Discovery Date: 30-Jun-1950
Discovered By: Fourie. Described by R. Broom Estimated Age: 1.8 mya Fossil Name: SK 48
Notes: 270 burned animal bones, other hominid remains, also found in Swartkrans Cave Adult (based on molar eruption) Enlarged molars and zygomatic arch (Presumably chewing adaptations)
  Species: Homo erectus Location: Sangiran Java, Indonesia Discovery Date: 13-Sep-1969
Discovered By: Towikromo Estimated Age: 800,000 ya Fossil Name: Sangiran 17
Notes: Best preserved specimen from Java. Fossil rusty brown from iron oxide
  Species: Homo sapiens Location: Qafzeh Cave Israel Discovery Date: 22-May-1905
Discovered By: Bernard Vandermeersch Estimated Age: 90,000 ya - 100,000 ya Fossil Name: Qafzeh IX
Notes: Found buried with young child. One of oldest known modern humans (proto Cro-Magnon)
  Species: Homo heidelbergensis / Homo neanderthalensis Location: Katsika Hill Petralona, Greece Discovery Date: 16-Sep-1960
Discovered By: J. Malkotsis, et al Estimated Age: 300,000 ya - 400,000 ya Fossil Name: Petralona 1
Notes: Found suspended in stalagmite (23 cm off the ground). Neanderthal-like browridge Morphological similarities to archaic Homo sapiens
Species: Homo erectus Location: Zhoukoudian Cave China Discovery Date: 1928-1937
Discovered By: W.C.Pei Estimated Age: 400,000 ya - 500,000 ya Fossil Name: Peking Man
Notes: Original bones disappeared during WWII (casts made and now reside in New York). Remains of 40 individuals found (along with stone tools and animal remains) First evidence of human use of fire found here No evidence of fire in Zhoukoudian Cave (bones naturally burned and washed into cave)
Species: Paranthropus boisei / Australopithecus boisei Location: Olduvai Gorge Tanzania Discovery Date: 12-May-1905
Discovered By: Mary Leakey Estimated Age: 1.8 mya Fossil Name: OH 5 (Zinj / Nutcracker Man)
Notes: Discovery shifted focus of paleoanthropology to East Africa Young adult (based on open sutures and 3rd molar eruption). Large, massive molars used to crush vegetation
  Species: Homo neanderthalensis Location: La Ferrassie, France Discovery Date: 17-Sep-1909
Discovered By: Denis Peyrony and Louis Capitan Estimated Age: 50,000 ya Fossil Name: La Ferrassie 1
Notes: Found deliberately buried with 6 other individuals (Neanderthals buried their dead) Classic Neanderthal anatomy (receeding forhead, long, low cranium, thick bones) Heavily worn front teeth (used as tools)
Species: Homo neanderthalensis Location: Bouffia Bonneval La Chapelle-Aux-Saints, France Discovery Date: 3-Aug-1908
Discovered By: Amadee and Jean Bouyssonie and Josef Bonneval Estimated Age: 50,000 ya Fossil Name: La Chapelle-Aux-Saints
Notes: Adult (40-50 years old) Severe arthritis. Original interpretation led to misconception of Neanderthal lifestyle and locomotion Skeleton shows adaptations to cold climate Flat cranium base (Neanderthals perhaps could not make a,i,u sounds- larynx too high in throat)
  Species: Australopithecus bahrelghazali / Australopithecus afarensis Location: Bahr el Ghazal, Chad Discovery Date: 1995
Discovered By: Michel Brunet Estimated Age: 3 mya - 3.5 mya Fossil Name: KT12/H1
Notes: First hominid fossil found west of Great Rift Valley Maxilla with seven attached teeth Differs from A. afarensis in chin shape, premolar roots, enamel thickness.
Species: Kenyanthropus platyops / Australopithecus afarensis Location: West Turkana, Kenya Discovery Date: Aug-2000
Discovered By: J. Erus Estimated Age: 3.5 mya Fossil Name: KNM-WT 40000 (Flat-faced man)
Notes: Unique mixture of flat face, small cheek teeth with small brain case and earhole May challenge Australopithecus as ancestor of Homo Structurally very similar to KNM-ER 1470
Species: Australopithecus aethiopicus / Paranthropus aethiopicus Location: West Turkana, Kenya Discovery Date: 1985
Discovered By: A. Walker Estimated Age: 2.5 mya Fossil Name: KNM-WT 17000 (The Black Skull)
Notes: Massive jaws and molars suggestive of herbivorous diet Upright posture (based of forward facing foramen magnum) Fossil color due to manganese-rich minerals
Species: Homo ergaster / Homo erectus / Homo erectus ergaster Location: Nariokotome West Turkana, Kenya Discovery Date: 1984
Discovered By: K. Kimeu Estimated Age: 1.6 mya Fossil Name: KNM-WT 15000
Notes: Most complete early hominid skeleton (80 bones and skull). Hairless and dark pigmented body (based on environment, limb proportions) Juvenile (9-12 based on 2nd molar eruption and unfused growth plates) Juvenile (8 years old based on recent studies on tooth development) Incapable of speech (based on narrowing of spinal canal in thoracic region)
Species: Australopithecus anamensis Location: Kanapoi, Kenya Discovery Date: 1994
Discovered By: P. Nzube Estimated Age: 4.07 mya - 4.17 mya Fossil Name: KNM-KP 29281
Notes: Adult (based on molar eruption and dental wear) fully bipedal (based on distal humerus and partial tibia fossils also found) Ape-like mandible; Homo-like postcranium
Species: Paranthropus boisei / Australopithecus boisei Location: Koobi Fora Lake Turkana, Kenya Discovery Date: 1969
Discovered By: R. Leakey and H. Mutua Estimated Age: 1.7 mya Fossil Name: KNM-ER 406
Notes: Tools found in same layer. Believed not to have made tools Bone disease behind left eye orbit (possible abscess)
Species: Homo ergaster / Homo erectus / Homo erectus ergaster Location: Koobi Fora Lake Turkana, Kenya Discovery Date: 1975
Discovered By: B. Ngeneo Estimated Age: 1.75 mya Fossil Name: KNM-ER 3733
Notes: Tools found in same layer. Found with KNM-ER 406- A. boisei (effectively eliminating single species hypothesis). Adult (based on cranial sutures, molar eruption and dental wear)
Species: Homo habilis / Australopithecus habilis Location: Koobi Fora Lake Turkana, Kenya Discovery Date: 1973
Discovered By: K. Kimeu Estimated Age: 1.9 mya Fossil Name: KNM-ER 1813
Notes: Adult (based on 3rd molar eruption and dental wear). Skull morphology very Homo-like 1813 too different from KNM-ER 1470 to be same species 1813 similar enough to 1470 to be same species.
Species: Homo rudolfensis / Homo habilis / Australopithecus rudolfensis / Kenyanthropus rudolfensis Location: Koobi Fora Lake Turkana, Kenya Discovery Date: 1972
Discovered By: B. Ngeneo Estimated Age: 1.8 mya Fossil Name: KNM-ER 1470
Notes: Tools found in same layer Bipedal (based on postcranial bones in same layer). Adult Large, massive molars Possible descendent of species represented by KNM-WT 40000
Species: Homo heidelbergensis / Homo erectus / Homo sapiens archaic Location: Broken Hill Kabwe, Zambia Discovery Date: 1921
Discovered By: T. Zwigelaar Estimated Age: 300,000 ya Fossil Name: Kabwe
Notes: Found with stone implements First African hominid found (1921). Older adult (based on 10 cavities and wound near ear)
Species: Homo neanderthalensis Location: Forbes Quarry Gibraltar, Spain Discovery Date: 1848
Discovered By: Unknown Estimated Age: Unknown Fossil Name: Gibraltar 1
Notes: First complete adult Neanderthal cranium found. Enormous nasal opening and first skull examined for unique Neanderthal trait of bony nasal swellings.
  Species: Paranthropus robustus / Australopithecus robustus Location: Drimolen Gauteng, South Africa Discovery Date: 21-Oct-1994
Discovered By: Andre W. Keyser Estimated Age: 1.5 mya - 2 mya Fossil Name: DNH 7
Notes: Most complete robustus skull (helps understand variability within a hominid species). 79 hominid specimens found so far in Drimolen cave system. No sagittal crest (as found on SK 48). Adult (based on wear on third molars).
  Species: Homo sapiens / Homo heidelbergensis / Homo erectus Location: Dali Shaanxi Province, China Discovery Date: 01-Mar-1978
Discovered By: Dali Shaanxi Province, China Estimated Age: 200,000 ya Fossil Name: Dali
Notes:Low, thick cranium, browridge, slight sagittal crest (like other Asian H. erectus). Small, flat face and prominent cheekbones of modern Chinese Important fossil for multiregional hypothesis for origin of modern humans. Shares similarities with European H. Heidelbergensis.
  Species: Homo erectus / Homo ergaster / Homo erectus ergaster Location: Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia Discovery Date: 1.75 mya
Discovered By: David Lordkipanidze Estimated Age: 1.75 mya Fossil Name: D2700
Notes: Tools found in same layer. Adolescent (based on partial eruption of 3rd molars) Closely related to Homo habilis
  Species: Homo ergaster / Homo erectus ergaster Location: Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia Discovery Date: 1999
Discovered By: Gotcha Kiladze Estimated Age: 1.7 mya Fossil Name: D2282
Notes: Stone tools found in same layer. Found with D2280. Presumed male cranium Adolescent (based on cranial sutures, molar eruption and dental wear). First confirmed hominid out of Africa.
Species:Homo sapiens Location: Abri Cro-Magnon Les Eyzies, France Discovery Date: Mar-1968
Discovered By: Louis Lartet and Henry Christy Estimated Age: 30,000 ya Fossil Name: Cro-Magnon 1
Notes: Carved bone, ivory, teeth, shell and rock artifacts found with remains Modern human (based on cranial capacity, steep forehead, rectangular eye orbits). Five individuals found deliberately buried. Healed fractures evidence of community support for injured individuals.
  Species: Homo erectus / Homo erectus ergaster Location: Middle Awash Afar, Ethiopia Discovery Date: 27-Dec-1997
Discovered By: W. Henry Gilbert Estimated Age: 1 mya Fossil Name: BOU-VP-2/66 (Daka)
Notes: Found with 3 femora and tibia. Perhaps unites African finds and Asian finds into one species--Homo erectus. Cutmarks on skull (tentatively attributed to animal gnawing). Argued by authors that Homo erectus, represented by Daka, was ancestor of Homo sapiens.
  Species: Australopithecus garhi Location: Middle Awash Afar, Ethiopia Discovery Date: 20-Nov-1997
Discovered By: Y. Haile-Selassie Estimated Age: 2.5 mya Fossil Name: BOU-VP-12/130
Notes: Descendant of A. afarensis; candidate ancestor for early homo Meat eater (based on tool marked bones found nearby). Teeth and skeleton Homo-like; cranium Australopithecus-like.
Species: Homo heidelbergensis / Homo erectus Location: Middle Awash Afar, Ethiopia Discovery Date: Oct-1979
Discovered By: A. Asfaw, P. Whitehead, C. Wood Estimated Age: 600,000 ya Fossil Name: Bodo
Notes: Found with Acheulean stone tools and butchered animal remains. Transition fossil linking Homo erectus and Homo sapiens Cranium exhibits cut marks- perhaps a result of defleshing
  Species: Orrorin tugenensis Location: Lukeino Formation Tugen Hills, Kenya Discovery Date: Nov-2000
Discovered By: B. Senut and M. Pickford Estimated Age: 5.72 mya - 5.88 mya Fossil Name: BAR 1000'00 (Millennium Man)
Notes: 13 fossils from 5 individuals. Had tree climbing skills (based on shape of humerus). Bipedal (based on shape of femur). May represent earliest known human ancestor. Homo-like teeth and jaws.
Species: Homo antecessor / Homo heidelbergensis Location: Gran Dolina Atapuerca, Spain Discovery Date: 1997
Discovered By: J.M. Bermudez de Castro Estimated Age: 780,000 ya Fossil Name: ATD6-69
Notes: 80 fossils from 6 individuals found. Earliest known European specimens. May be common ancestor to modern humans and Neanderthals. Earliest case of hominid cannabilism (based on cut marks from stone tools on most of remains).
Species: Homo heidelbergensis / Homo neanderthalensis / Archaic Homo sapiens Location: Sima de los Huesos Cave Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain Discovery Date: 8-Jul-1991
Discovered By: Juan-Luis Arsuaga Estimated Age: 300,000 ya Fossil Name: Atapuerca 5
Notes: More than 700 hominid fossils have been found at Sima de los Huesos. Adult Fossils represent early stage in Neanderthal evolution. Remains perhaps deliberately dumped into the cave.
Species: Homo heidelbergensis / Homo neanderthalensis Location: Caune de l'Arago Tautavel, France Discovery Date: 1971
Discovered By: Henry de Lumley Estimated Age: 400,000 ya Fossil Name: Arago XXI (Tautavel Man)
Notes: 60 hominid fossils found at site. Features suggest Arago is an ancestral Neanderthal Broca's cap found on endocast of brain (speech areas well developed). Righthanded (based on asymmetry of endocast).
  Species: Ardipithecus ramidus ramidus Location: Aramis- Middle Awash Afar, Ethiopia Discovery Date: 1992
Discovered By: A. Asfaw Estimated Age: 4.4 mya Fossil Name: ARA-VP-1/129
Notes: Material from 50 individuals found Partial skeleton (45%) found. Not yet published. Bipedal (based on position of foramen magnum and long bones). Lived in wooded environment (based on seeds, fauna). Perhaps a chimpanzee ancestor, not a human ancestor.
Species: Homo neanderthalensis Location: Amud Cave Israel Discovery Date: 28-Jun-1961
Discovered By: Hisashi Suzuki Estimated Age: 45,000 ya Fossil Name: Amud
Notes: Associated with Middle Stone Age tools. Cranial capacity largest of any hominid fossil. Skull not fully fossilized, badly damaged. Adult (about 25 based on degree of suture closure in skull).
Species: Ardipithecus ramidus kadabba Location: Middle Awash Afar, Ethiopia Discovery Date: 1997-1999
Discovered By: Yohannes Haile-Selassie Estimated Age: 5.5 mya - 5.8 mya Fossil Name: ALA-VP-2/10
Notes: 11 fossils from 5 individuals. Including jawbone with teeth. Lived in wet, wooded environment (Challenges hypothesis that hominids evolved on grassy plains). Bipedal (based on shape of toe bone). May represent earliest known human ancestor. Perhaps a chimpanzee ancestor and not a human ancestor.
  Species: Australopithecus afarensis Location: Afar locality Hadar, Ethiopia Discovery Date: 1992
Discovered By: Y. Rak Estimated Age: 3 mya Fossil Name: A.L.444-2
Notes: Skull pieced together from 60 fragments. Found near 52 other fossils including ulna and humerus. Older adult (based on molar eruption and dental wear). Confirms earlier reconstructions of afarensis skull.
Species: Australopithecus afarensis Location: Afar locality Hadar, Ethiopia Discovery Date: 1974
Discovered By: D. Johanson Estimated Age: 3.18 mya Fossil Name: A.L.288-1 (Lucy)
Notes: 47 of estimated 207 bones found. Adult (based on molar eruption and bone growth). Bipedal (based on pelvis, lower limbs, footprints from A. afarensis at Laetoli). Arboreal climber (based on skeletal evidence).