Bible Chronology / Timeline from Adam to Zedekiah.


Overview

All growing up, I always looked for a chart like the following, which gave scriptural timeline dates and more importantly--the references from which the date was dirived. I never found one that had quite all I wanted. I came to believe over time, like many do, that biblical chronology critics were right, and that the Bible did not have a complete, unbroken internal chronology from Adam to Christ. All that changed when I decided to do my own extensive research project on scriptural dates.

The charts below are the culmination of hundreds of hours of both scriptural and scholarly research. I believe that these charts are some of the most complete and data-packed chronology information available on biblical / scriptural dates.

Contrary to much popular belief, the Bible's internal timeline is extensive, comprehensive and quite trustworthy. Between dates, ages and geneologies, I believe that the below timeline is very accurate in all sections except the reign of the Judges, where it may be off by as much as +/-50 years. However, to argue about EXACT dates (to the year) or to try and give an EXACT date for Adam is both futile and fool-hearty unless you are what I like to call a "chronological uniformitarianist" (see notes below for more info on accuracies).

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Gen Descendant of Adam Notes about Life Total Life Span Begat son at… Lived after that … Prstd Ordin- ation BIRTH (Yr-BC) DEATH (Yr-BC) Scripture reference's) which give exact ages/dates.
1 Adam Dates start at the Fall of Adam 930 130 800 - 4000 BC 3070 BC Moses 6:10, 11, 12 - Gen 5:3, 4, 5
2 Seth . 912 105 807 69 3870 BC 2958 BC Moses 6:13, 14, 16 - Gen 5:6, 7, 8
3 Enos . 905 90 815 134 3765 BC 2860 BC Moses 6:17, 18 - Gen 5:9, 10, 11
4 Cainan . 910 70 840 87 3675 BC 2765 BC Moses 6:19 - Gen 5:12, 13, 14
5 Mahalaleel . 895 65 830 496 3605 BC 2710 BC Moses 6:20 - Gen 5:15, 16, 17
6 Jared . 962 162 800 200 3540 BC 2578 BC Moses 6:21, 24 - Gen 5:18, 19, 20
7 Enoch Enoch translated either when 365 or 430 yrs old (in 1052 A.F. Or 2948 BC) N/A 65 N/A 25 3378 BC N/A Moses 6:25 7:68 8:1 - Gen 5:21, 22 D&C 107:49
8 Methuselah . 969 187 782 100 3313 BC 2344 BC Moses 8:5, 6, 7 - Gen 5:25, 26, 27
9 Lamech . 777 182 595 32 3126 BC 2349 BC Moses 8:8, 10, 11 - Gen 5:28, 30, 31
10 Noah See Note about Bible discrepacy 950 492 458 10 2944 BC 1994 BC Moses 8:12 - Gen 5:32 9:29
11 Shem . 610 110 500 - 2452 BC 1852 BC Gen 11:10, 11, 12

Noah's Flood: Occurred when Noah was 600, and Shem was 108. That’s 1548 years from fall or 2344 BC. Noah died 350 years after it ended (Gen 7:6,11 8:17 9:28).


12 Arphaxed . 438 35 403 - 2342 BC 1914 BC Gen 11:12, 13
13 Salah . 433 30 403 - 2307 BC 1884 BC Gen 11:14, 15
14 Eber . 464 34 430 N/A 2277 BC 1823 BC Gen 11:16, 17
15 Peleg In his days the earth is divided 239 30 209 N/A 2243 BC 2014 BC Gen 11:18, 19
16 Reu . 239 32 207 N/A 2213 BC 1984 BC Gen 11:20, 21
17 Serug . 230 30 200 N/A 2181 BC 1961 BC Gen 11:22, 23
18 Nahor . 148 29 119 N/A 2151 BC 2013 BC Gen 11:24, 25
19 Terah See Note about Bible discrepacy 205 70-130 +/-105 N/A 2122 BC 1927 BC Gen 11:26, 32 12:1,4
20 Abraham . 175 100 75 ? 2022 BC? 1847 BC? Gen 21:5 25:7,8
21 Isaac . 180 60 60 ? 1922 BC 1742 BC Gen 25:7 36:28
22 Jacob . 147 68 79 ? 1862 BC 1715 BC Gen 47:28 9?
23 Levi . 137 64? 73? - 1794 BC 1657 BC Exodus 6:16
24 Kohath Very little info (Only age at death given) 133 70? 63? - 1730 BC? 1597 BC? Exodus 6:18
25 Amram Very little info (Only age at death given) 137 63? 74? - 1660 BC? 1523 BC? Exodus 6:20
26 Moses Translated at age 120 N/A 40-80 N/A 40-80 1597 BC 1477 BC Duet 34:7, Exodus 7:7, Acts 7:23,30

The Exodus: See Note. Occurred when Moses was 80 years old. In 1517 BC, 430 years after Abraham was 75 or 215 years passed from the time that Jacob entered Israel to the exodus (Acts 7:23,30 - Gal 3:17 - Gen 15:13,16).


Gen Descendant of Adam Notes about Life Total Life Span Begat son at… Age Made King Total Reign Beg Reign (Yr_BC) DEATH (Yr_BC) Scripture reference's giving exact ages/ dates.
Joshua See Note for explanation for length of riegn 110 N/A 75 35 1477 BC 1442 BC? Josh 24:29
27 Othneil 8 yr captivity to Mesopt. 40 year freedom - N/A - 40 1442 BC? 1402 BC? Judges 3:ll (also see Judges 3:8)
Ehud/Sham. 18 yr captivity to Moab. 80 year freedom - N/A - 80 1402 BC? 1322 BC? Judges 3:30 (also see Judges 3:14)
28 Deborah Rules w/ Barak. 20 yr captivity to Canaan. - N/A - 40 1322 BC? 1282 BC? Judges 5:31 (see also Judges 4:2-3)
Gideon 7 yr captivity to Midian. 40 year freedom - - - 40 1282 BC? 1242 BC? Judges 8:28 (See also Judges 6:1)
29 Abimelech Son of Gideon (Judg 9:18,21) - N/A - 3 1242 BC? 1239 BC? Judges 9:22 (16-55)
Tola Son of Puah of Issachar - N/A - 23 1239 BC? 1216 BC? Judges 10:1
Jair Of Gilead - N/A - 22 1216 BC? 1194 BC? Judges 10:3
30 Jephthah 18 year oppression by Philistines - N/A - 6 1194 BC? 1188 BC? Judges 12:7 (see also Judges 10:8)
Ibzan of Bethlehem (1 chron ) - N/A - 7 1188 BC? 1181 BC? Judges 12:8-9
Elon Of Zebulun - N/A - 10 1181 BC? 1171 BC? Judges 12:11-12
Abdon Son of Hillel, of Pirathon - N/A - 8 1171 BC? 1163 BC? Judges 12:13-14
31 Samson 40 year oppression by Philistines - N/A - 20 1163 BC? 1143 BC? Judges 15:20 (see also Judges 13:1)
Eli 40 is not civil reign shouldn't be counted? 98 N/A - 40 1143 BC? 1103 BC? 1 Samuel 4:15,18
32 Samuel Rules solely for a time and jointly with Saul 105 N/A 59? 7 1103 BC? 1096 BC? Josephus? (is 66 when he anoints Saul)
Saul Born 1062 BC? (40 yrs includes Samuel?) 60 N/A 20 40 1102 BC? 1060 BC? Acts 13:21
33 David Born 1032 BC? 70 - 33 40 1062 BC? 1022 BC? 2 Sam 5:4-5, 1 Chron. 29:27, 3:4
34 Solomon Temple lain in 1018 BC? - ? - 40 1022 BC? 982 BC? 2 Chron. 9:30, 1 Kings 11:42

Foundation of Temple is Lain: Solomon lays temple foundation in 4rth year of his reign in approximately 1018-1019 BC, and 480 years after the Exodus (1 Kings 6:1).


35 Rehoboam Fights against bro, Jeroboam all his life. 58 - 41 17 982 BC 965 BC 2 Chron. 12:13, 1 Kings 14:21
36 Abijam (a.k.a. Abijah) Wicked like his father - - - 3 965 BC 962 BC 2 Chron. 13:2, 1 Kings 15:2
37 Asa Rightous - - - 41 962 BC 921 BC 2 Chron. 16:13, 1 Kings 15:10
38 Jehoshaphat Rightous 60 28 35 25 921 BC 896 BC 2 Chron. 20:31, 1 Kings 22:42
39 Jehoram Wicked 40 18 32 8 896 BC 888 BC 2 Chron. 21:5,20, 2 Kings 8:17
40 Ahaziah (x) Chronicles says he started to reign at 42 23 22 22 1 888 BC 887 BC 2 Chron. 22:2 , 2 Kings 8:26
Athalia Wicked wife of Jehoram. Userps throne - N/A - 6 887 BC 881 BC 2 Chron. 22:12, 2 Kings 11:3
41 Joash Son of Ahaziah, saved by High Priest 47 22 7 40 881 BC 841 BC 2 Chron. 24:1, 2 Kings 12:1, 11:21
42 Amaziah . 54 38 25 29 841 BC 812 BC 2 Chron. 25:1, 2 Kings 14:2
43 Uzziah (a.k.a. Azariah) big earthquake during reign 68 43 16 52 812 BC 760 BC 2 Chron. 26:3, 2 Kings 15:2
44 Jotham . 41 21 25 16 760 BC 744 BC 2 Chron. 27:1,8, 2 Kings 15:33
45 Ahaziah (a.k.a Ahaz) 36 - 20 16 744 BC 728 BC 2 Chron. 28:1, 2 Kings 16:2
46 Hezekiah Sun goes back 15 degrees 54 42 25 29 728 BC 699 BC 2 Chron. 29:1, 2 Kings 18:2
47 Manasseh . 67 45 12 55 699 BC 644 BC 2 Chron. 33:1, 2 Kings 21:1
48 Amon (x) Murdered 24 16 22 2 644 BC 642 BC 2 Chron. 33:21 2 Kings 21:19
49 Josiah . 39 14 8 31 642 BC 611 BC 2 Chron. 34:1 2 Kings 22:1
50 Jehoiakim (a.ka. Eliakim) vassal to pharaoh 36 15 25 11 611 BC 600 BC 2 Chron. 36:5, 2 Kings 23:36
" Zedekiah (a.k.a. Mattaniah) Johoiakim's cousin 32 32 21 11 600 BC 589 BC 2 Chron 36:11. 2 Kings 24:18

BOM Timeline: Babylonian Captivity. This puts us into the BOM and established written history. (See 1 Nephi 10:4)


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Key

BOLD FONT = Exact date is given in corresponding scripture references column.
REGULAR FONT = Date calculated using bold dates.
? = Uncertainty in date calculation



Bible Chronology / Timeline Notes


About General Date Accuracy

Date accuracies range from 100% at the riegn of Zedekiah (BOM), to +/- 10-20 yrs at Rehoboam, to give or take AT THE VERY MOST a few hundred years descrepancy during the riegn of the judges (I believe accuracy for that peiod is more like +/-50 years at the worst). Those who have tried to discredit the bible timeline 500 to 3000 yrs have done so to try and make them fit with acheological, Greek or carbon dates which are flawed. Through modern revelation, given in D&C 77:6-7, 12 & 88:108-110 the Lord has substantiated the accuracy of the bible timeline (1 Ne. 13:40, Mormon 7:9). The bible timeline is yet further substantiated by the Jaredite geneology and the book of Moses as well. (see accompanying geneological tables)

The starting point of 4000 BC for Adam is somewhat arbitrary and is based losely on D&C 76:11. No date pretends to be truly accurate to the year, in that I do not believe this is possible given the past non-uniformity of the earth's orbit. At present leap years are assigned to account for the .25 in the earth's 365.25 orbital period. Jewish, Babylonian and biblical calenders suggest that as recent as 600 B.C. or so, the earth's orbital period may have been slightly different. Those who believe in biblical catastrophe such as Noah's Flood and such, should find it rediculous to try to assign absolute exactness in biblical dates, given the sporatic change in orbital period. However, God is exact in his measurment of time, and we will one day see how changes in periodicity factor into his preplanned, exact 7000 year dating scheme.

1 Nephi 1:4 & 2:4 Nephi's family left Jerusalem in the first year of the reign of Zedekiah. 1 Nephi 10:4 & 19:8 assure that this was in 600-601 BC. Thus we use this as our starting point, and count back through the kings of Judah until David. We can assume an error of a few years because dates for this period are only accurate to the year, not the month. Dates from Adam to David are counted forward from Adam with an arbitrary starting point of 4000 BC (D&C 76:11). At Solomon, where the two dating schemes meet, we amazingly find only a 15 year error!


Pre-Flood Notes

As far as internal consistancy, I believe the dates given for before the flood are the most accurate given in the Bible. Moses 1:41 would suggest that the dates given in that book and Genesis are acurate. This ante-diluvian chronology is actually given in seven different books of scripture (see geneology chart), which would suggest God is trying to tell us it is important. Also, we must remember that Adam died only 126 years before Noah was born. And Noah died only about 28 years after Abraham was born. So these dates were not being obscured through the genereations of time.

Genesis 5:21-23 lists Enoch as living 365 years, (bore son at 65 and then lived 300 years after that) Joseph Smith explains that he walked with God 365 years after being called at age 65 for a life span of 430 years before being translated as is also stated in Moses 6:25, 7:68 & 8:1. But 430 - 365 = 65 which seems fishy. (65-300-65?) The discrepancy does not affect the dates of the the rest of the chronology

Genesis 5 says that Noah had three sons but does not give specific years, only stating that he was 500 when they had all been born. Moses 8 clears this up by giving exact years for each son's birth.


Patriarchal Era Notes

Nimrod is the great grandson of Noah (Noah-Ham-Cush-Nimrod) so he was likely born around the time of Salah. He is credited with building the city of Babel (Genesis 10:10) and the tower (Apocrypha). It's climax and destruction (I.e. Brother of Jared leaving) most likely did not occur until populations were able to climb up into the 300,000 - 2 million range. Thus at least 160-250 years. (2184-2144 BC) Apacrophal souces substantiate this by stating that Nimrod lived long enouph to be a contemporary of Abraham.

All three of Terah's children are mentioned as being born when Terah was 70 (Genesis 11:26)
Lectures on faith, gives another chronology on the patriarchs which is very similiar but diverges as follows: (under construction)
Jacob was about 68 calculated from….
Levi, Kohath, and Amram's age when they had their patriarchal son is not given.
Moses and Aaron were brothers, both born of Amram; Aaron was three years older than Moses.


Exodus Notes

Jacob entered Egypt at age 130 (Gen 37:9 gives exact age)

The Septuigent copy of Exodus 14:40 says Israel was in captivity for exactly 215 years. This date fits nicely with geneologies and would have spanned from the time Jacob/Israel and his sons entered Egypt until the Exodus. Jocob died in the year 1715 BC at age 147, thus he lived in Egypt for 17 years before his death. This puts his enterence into Egypt in 1732 BC. We know the exodus was in 1517 BC, so these date match since 1732 - 1517 = 215 years.

Exodus 12:40 says "Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was 430 years". The septuagent and Samaritan copies correct this wording to say "Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, and of their fathers, which they sojourned in the land of Canaan and in the land of Egypt was 430 years". (p156 skousen) Gen 15:13-16 substantiates that the septuagent correction is the proper wording.

Gen 15:13-16 says that Abraham's seed would be "sojourners in a strange land for four generations" or "400 years". This appears to be giving a rounded estimate. The 430 year version given in Ex. 12:40 and the septuagent are likely the more exact dates.

The exodus occurred 430 years from the time of Abraham's vision in Canaan. (Gen 16:3, 15-16 suggests that this vision was shortly before Abraham married Hagar, which was 10 years before Abraham was 86) (430 year figure comes from Gal 3:17, Acts 7:6-7, & Gen 15:13, 16. This amount of time matches well with genealogies and other dates given) The 430 years could have also have started when Abraham had Ishmeal and left Canain, which would only change dates by a few years.

Acts 7:23 tells that Moses was 40 when he smote the Egyptian and fled. Acts 7:30 tells that Moses refuge in Midian for another full 40 years. Exodus 7:7 further supports this and says Moses was 80 years old when he returned to liberate Israel. From this we know that Moses was ordained to the priesthood by Jethro and bore both his two sons during this 40 year period between the ages of 40 and 80.

Clarke's Bible commentary 1:883 suggests that Joshua was 57 at the time of the Exodus. After 40 years in the wilderness, this would put the death of Moses, and the beginning of his reign at age 97. [reigning 13 years]


Judges Notes

Dates given for the period of the Judges seem to be the most questionable or unreliable of all the Bible periods. This is somewhat expected since it was a period of repeated captivity and apostacy. Adding up the dates given equals about 536 years, but with all the apparent rounded or estimated numbers it doesn't seem very trustworthy. However, 1 kings 6:1 clears up the problem, telling that the Solomon's temple began to be built in the fourth year of Solomon's Reign and "480 years after the children of israel were come out of Egypt". Which puts us at 1499 BC. But this still begs the question of whether this date points to the Exodus, or the entry into Israel. Since the record states "come out of Egypt" instead of "Come into Canaan" we will supose it is referring to the exodus.

A second witness comes in Judges 11:26, where Jephthah says that Isreal had been living in the coasts of Israel for 300 years. Which fits appropriately with the 480 year number given in kings, since Jephthah lived a bit more than half way through the period of the judges.

A third witness is given in Acts 13:20, which says God gave unto Israel "judges about the space of 450 years until Samuel the prophet". Samuel began to reign about 80 years before Solomon began the temple, so this may conflict a bit with the 480 from Kings or it is likely that the periods of "servitude" listed in the Book of Judges are actually also included in the rounded numbers given. If not it seems quite a coincidence that the servitude periods add up to be very close to the number needed to make the dates match 480. (8+18+20+7+18+40=111, And 585?-111=474)

Either way we have a good ball park figure for the Exodus of about 1499 BC (1019+480) for the Exodus. (many scholars use the date 1446 BC).


Kings Notes

The period of the Kings is the most recent found in the Old Testament, and given the intricate detail involved is probably quite accurate. Many of the names and dates given in Kings and Chronicles fall within secular recorded history and can be "scientifically" varified. However, it is this same fact which has led to some confusion as archeologists and historians find slightly conflicting dates. I believe the Bible is more accurate than these however, as historical dates often used calendars and counting systems which I believe where less accurate than that of the Hebrews. The Bibles internal chronology for this period (calculated from the length of king's riegns) gives 429 (433-4) years from the fall of Judah to the building of Soloman's Temple.

The book of Mormon tells us Lehi left Jerusalem 600 years before the birth of Christ (1 Ne. 10:4), which it also tells us was during the 1st year of the reign of Zedekiah (1 Ne 1:4). So to get the date for the building of Soloman's temple we add up reigns which total 433 years. And 433 minus 10 (Zedekiah lived about 10 years after Lehi left Jerusalem) minus 4 (Soloman started his temple in the 4rth year of his reign) gives us 419 years. So all together thats 600+419 or 1019 BC (give or take a few years because kings reigns are not acurate to the month).


General Breakdown

Aside from the detailed timeline given above of individuals and their lifespans, the bible also gives dates covering each major epoch of time. These dates match very well with the timeline given above.

Adam to Abraham
Approximately 2,048 years passed from the Fall to Godís vision to Abraham. (Moses 6:10-25, 7:68, 8:1-12, Gen. 5:3-32, 11:10-32, Lectures on Faith: Lecture Second.)
Abraham to Exodus
Approximately 430 years passed from around the time of Abrahamís vision until the Exodus. (Exodus 12:40, Gen. 15:13-16)
Exodus to Solomon
480 years passed from the Exodus to the building of the Temple of Solomon. (1 Kings 6:1)
Solomon to Fall of Judah
Approximately 418 years passed from the building of the temple to the reign of Zedekiah and fall of Judah to Babylon (Period well documented in books of Kings & Chronicles)
Zedekiah to birth of Christ
600 years passed from the time Lehi left Jerusalem (the first year of Zedekiahís reign) to the time of Christ. (1 Nephi 1:4, 2:4)

2048+430+480+418+600= +/- 3976 Years from Adam to Christ


Other References

For more information see these notes taken from Cleon Skousen's "Thousand Year" book series... (under construction)


Related Pages

Biblical Chronology- Kings of Israel Line

Jaredite Chronology

Biblical Geneology Tables